You might have heard of the Clark “Doll Test,” an experiment developed in the 1940s that was conducted on black children, requiring them to select the “good” doll and the “bad” doll. Ostensibly, the children selected the white doll when asked questions affirming positivity, and the black doll when asked questions affirming negativity. The results of this experiment were brought before the Supreme Court in 1954 during the landmarkBrown v. Board case at the insistence of Thurgood Marshall, and was pivotal in overturning Plessy v. Ferguson.
In 2010, Margaret Beale Spencer recreated the doll test for modern children. The resultswere essentially unchanged from those found in 1947; in fact, (black) children showed bias towards dolls with lighter skin, suggesting that the emphasis on skin color remains problematic even if the outward expression of the ideal has shifted. On a positive note, companies like Matteland American Girl are finally responding to the fact that offering diverse products to their audiences favorably affects the bottom line. Ideally, their acquiescence to diversity would have more to do with helping children negotiate healthy relationship with their ethnic/racial identity and self-image while forming a versatile worldview, but I am not naive to believe that for-profit entities would ever be that benevolent.
At any rate, I am a gamer and do not play with dolls (action figures only). Still, I wonder what it would look like if I were to analyze video games and playable brown characters in ways similar to the way in which conclusions were drawn about the doll test. Inspired by Chaka Cumberbatch and her launching of #29DaysofBlackCosplay (formerly 28 days but gotta account for that leap year day, yo!), the following Black History Month allegory is brought to you courtesy of Blerdvision.
In the Beginning, There Was Balrog, and He was Bad. Others, Not So Much….
Poor Mike here is eternally trapped in a loop of taking L’s. I was just nine years old when I first saw this at an Aladdin’s Castle in 1991, and I was already wondering why (the ubiquitous) “‘they’ had to have a blonde-haired, blue-eyed dude punch out a black guy,” especially when this was the first black guy I had ever seen in a video game. Yes, even pre-puberty, I was training my mind to read this kind of imagery critically. (Note: These characters are unnamed, but fans suspect that on the left is Mike, a boxer from the first Street Fighter, forever replaced by [Mike Bison] Balrog in the sequel. Fans are split concerning the man on the right, but I favor a young Cody from Final Fight)
The first black character that I can remember seeing or playing in a video game is Mike Bison, now known as Balrog, in Street Fighter II Championship Edition on the Sega Genesis. Ironically, I was a huge Mike Tyson fan as a kid, and not only did I somehow miss out on playing Mike Tyson’s Punch-Out on the NES, an error that would not be corrected until the 10th grade, I also failed to immediately recognize that Capcom designed Balrog to be a caricature of my favorite boxer; I had to read about this in an issue of EGM. I blame Capcom’s change in artwork rather than my inattentiveness, because my primary exposure to the game was on the Genesis version, dubbed Championship Edition, where his VS screen image had been changed to match the Turbo edition on SNES.
One subtle change followed by an arguably drastic one. I believe the subsequent metamorphoses of Balrog into his present incarnation has every bit to do with the real Mike Tyson’s rape conviction in 1991. Capcom wanted to distance themselves as much as possible.
At any rate, I did not find Balrog inspiring, and would not warm up to him until his Street Fighter Alpha 3 adeptation. He is the first in a series of bosses leading up to a showdown with to real final boss, M. Bison, leaving me to conclude that he is the least of the Shadowloo. My suspicions were further confirmed through Street Fighter II: The Animated Moviein a scene whenBalrog fights E. Honda while sporting a derpface. I can think of a word that rhymes with “goon,” but it would be more appropriate to save it word to describe Dee Jay much later.
Once upon a 16-bit era, beat ’em ups maintained a strong presence in the industry. My all-time favorite franchise is Streets of Rage, known as Bare Knuckle in Japan, and in the beginning there was Adam.
Everything about Adam Hunter in Streets of Rage is precisely what should always be happening in video games to the point that if more characters like him existed, I may not feel compelled to discuss my trek of finding a character in video games “like me.” In SoR, there is little that distinguishes Adan from Axel besides his slightly stronger strikes—essentially, they are like Billy and Jimmy in Double Dragon (plus Blaze). The fact that there is little character development for Adam beyond what is also available for the other two characters supports the likelihood that the developers also did not overthink him. In Kantian fashion, Adam simply exists because he does.
I probably would not casually play SoR for the sake of nostalgia, but likely would skip right over to SoR2 or 3 because they are simply better games. Despite this, I feel that Sega stagnates in its character design. Adam is reduced to a victim captured by the Syndicate, so his brother, Eddie “Skate” Hunter and Max “Thunder” Hatchett join Axel and Blaze for the rescue.
Having invested uncountable hours playing these characters, I love all of them, which is why it hurts me so much to write about them like this. As a kid, I wanted to be Skate because he was the closest I could get to being one of the 3 Ninjas. The backwards hat, tank top, gold chain, rollerblades, and knee-high jean shorts exuded gangster cool, and as a black kid living during the Golden Age of Hip Hop, to not strive for coolness would be identity suicide.
Therein lies the insidious problem that so many youth face daily yet lack the language to describe, and the maturity to comprehend it: the performativity of blackness. External forces influence self-actualization, and one is compelled to choose, for it is inadequate to simply be, black—”blackness”is not only codified into something readily identifiable and stratified in ways that clearly signify othering (ie: Attention players! One of these is not like the other!), else identity politics becomes something of indefinite loop resulting in “character redundancies” such as Adam and Axel co-existing as essentially interchangeable in SoR. White characters in video games such as Axel can function as effective tabula rasas and enjoy their intrinsic genericism, blending in with practically any archetype in video games, from the gruff Marcus Fenix in Gears of War to default Shepard in Mass Effect. But when a POC appears, they are always already marked as a type of special event, and their accoutrements define them as such. Let me say this more clearly: every character that appears in a video game is designed intentionally placed; Skate’s depiction and Adam’s sidelining are no more natural than Sega’s decision to reduce Blaze’s wardrobe for sex appeal.
This is why as innocuous as Skate appears to be, it is his appearance itself that simultaneously illustrates and demands the expectation of a certain kind of blackness. None of this means that a character such as Skate is suddenly dangerous or less fun to play. I doubt that Sega’s intentions were malicious in his design; they were simply following the outline of an archtype from external sources much like Capcom, but they utilized less execrable stereotypes. Still, once one begins to recognize the ways in which blackness can be typified, it cannot be helped but to look upon even likable characters with a more critical eye.
Of course, the worst of the flawed characters is further exacerbated. Dee Jay’s coonery in Super SF is preposterous, but unsurprising. Rather than strive for better design after Balrog, Capcom double-downed on its aesthetic. The new challenger’s gummy and toothy grin rarely fades, consistent with his carefree attitude. Who thoughtthiswas a good idea? Probably the same artist who animated derpy Balrog. Perhaps they are related to the writers at Saban Entertainment, who wrote the breakdancing Zack into existence after converting the Super Sentai series into the Mighty Morphin Power Rangers because Dee Jay loves dancing too. Can’t get enough of thoseperpetually happyand dancin’ and singin’ negroes!
Ugh. Consistent with the illustration of Balrog, the dotted pupils. At least they are facing the same direction this times. Those lips are still stupid. Thankfully, the in-game sprite is tolerable.
…or prisoners. Ok, Morgan Freeman was excellent in The Shawshank Redemption and Eddie Murphy and Martin Lawrence were underrated in Life, but there is something insidious about making me like a brotha who delights in crime and the prison life. I admittedly enjoyed playing as Birdie in Street Fighter Alpha as a unique replacement for Zangief (until SFA3) despite the eccentricities of his mohawk and heart tattoo. When I read in the 90’s that Birdie was a returning character from the original Street Fighter, I accepted the news as the gospel truth, but Google reveals the story of a redesign. I can only guess that Capcom noticed that the original SFA cast lacked any brown people, so they gave a skin change to a character that is not nearly as as iconic as a Chun-Li or Ken.
I do not think it is a stretch to say that Barret Wallace is perhaps the most infamous black video game character of all time. Not only is he the first black character featured in the Final Fantasy franchise, but also perhaps any RPG whatsoever. Practically any article on the topic of black characters in video games includes him. Considering that FFVII is arguably the most popular RPG of all time, then it is not a leap to say he was also the first black character that most gamers were ever exposed to, and even white gamers noticed attributes about him that are inconsistent with every other FF character ever, namely, his slang. In a different medium such as literature, its usage of in Their Eyes are Watching God is lauded rather than criticized. The difference is that the intent behind Zora Neale Hurston’s deployment of dialect is not for the purpose of stigmatization, but preservation of culture in a specific region (in her case, Florida and the Deep South) . Contrastly, Barrett’s grammar in FFVII is simply a marker of otherness.
This image almost makes me yearn to fire up GTAV again, but then I remember how boring the game is after the main campaign.
As it is obligatory to discuss Barrett, so is it also necessary to say something about Carl Johnson (CJ) from GTA: San Andreas. After all, he is gaming’s very first black protagonist. Unfortunately, GTA:SA was the first game that I ever played that forced me, even as an agnostic college student, to wonder if it was too inappropriate for me to play! I absolutely cringed at the liberal sprinkling of the F-bombs and N-words. Yes, unlike Squaresoft with FFVII, Rockstar was genuine in its (hyper-satirical) reproduction of SoCal, and the previously-mentioned Golden Age of Hip-Hop through nostalgic lenses, yet I still cannot accept the thuggery of CJ as heroics. In fact, it is because his checkered past in the Grove Street Families gang that marks him as a target for the villain of the game, the crooked cop Officer Tenpenny, to do dirty work (Should I care that Tenpenny is black? I am ambivalent. I love Samuel L. Jackson’s VA though).
I want to make it clear that I do not despise Capcom, for the company makes an honest attempt at atonement. The result is that the character design in SF3 ranges from outstanding to downright exploitative.Elena is a character who disrupts my critical lens because I want like her. I love the nod her stage gives the best animated movie of all time, The Lion King, through the silhouette of the baobab tree outlined by the background sunset. Her stage music remains a frequently played track on my VGM playlists. But she’s practically buck naked, and I am afraid that her…assets…also play a major role in any defense I have of her character. Like all characters in SF3, Elena is meticulously designed, right down to the flaw of her existence in the game as an exotic sexploitation. There is little defense for that many frames of animation devoted to her demonstrating how much she moves…even when she isn’t. I do not feel it necessary to discuss her in USFIV because nothing has changed.
When I played SFIII:TS on the Dreamcast in 1999, my hormones were raging off the charts, and I had zero issues with stuff like this self-inflicted atomic wedgie. Now, I wonder if Sisqó’s 1999 “Thong Song” was inspired by playing SF3.
Sean is a high-potential concept with epic fail results. He is literally a male, brown-skinned Sakura but for Ken rather than Ryu, right down to the fact that he wanted to become the protege of the red gi. Unfortunately, fans recognized him as Sakura without the short skirt and panty-flashes. Worse, his basic specials are bootleg versions of the Shotokan masters’. Thus, Sean is Dan but without the comic effect. Capcom could have made Ken put Sean over, but instead, Sean is written as not even wildly talented yet undisciplined like Ken, but just as clumsy as Dan, losing to lesser opponents in SF3. What if Capcom had instead written Sean to be like Nightwing to Batman, or even a Damian Wayne? We might be looking at Sean + rival like we do Jin Kazama and Hwoarang to Kazuya and Heihachi in Tekken.
Instead, the designers demonstrate their lack of direction and acumen with the (Afro)Brazilian by sticking a basketball in his hand when a futbol would be more acceptable. One of his pre-fight animations is him practicing his J. Really? Elena also suffers from mismatched cultural signifiers; her fighting style of capoeira is Brazilian-bred, yet she is a Native Kenyan. Wut?
Sean learned how to fight to beat up the guys for chasing after his sister. Of course, she can completely handle herself in SFV, but it helps when folks make inappropriate comments , y’know? Also, yay for diaspora, but at what cost?
On a positive note, the gaming industry needs more Dudleys to dilute the presence of Balrogs. It is not shocking to think about Afro-Caribbeans like Dee Jay, but Afro-British? They exist? Yes! The African Diaspora is real, yall! Furthermore, Dudley is one of the few characters in the gaming industry who is brown, but his brownness is not “marked” like Skate’s backwards hat and gold chains, Elina’s naked Africanness, and Sean’s fondness for basketball. He’s the quintessential objective for anyone striving for equality in racial representation…well, except for those who might take issue with the respectability politics of his portrayal as a “proper Englishman.” I prefer to view Dudley like Adam: they merely just-so-happen to be black.
The level of meta in the subversion here is over 9000! Credit to Capcom for going in the complete opposite direction with Dudley. Is there Gatorade in that tea cup? Now we just need more great characters like Dudley conquering the really bad ones, but they are much too rare. (image by mikenart)
Like I established with Adam, the character who just-so-happens-to-be-black appears ideal, yet the tricky part seems to be the process of ascribing the attributes which make the character memorable besides just being brown. Far too often, the gaming industry fumbles on this stretch of design. Let’s walk through a few.
Jax(Mortal Kombat), TJ Combo (Killer Instinct), and Jonathan Blade (Eternal Champions), are all “strong black males,” a stereotype that might be seen as benign without considering the long history of assumptions concerning black male virility, athleticism, and general masculinity. Two of these men go so far as to integrate cybernetics with their biology to enhance their strength when mere flesh fails.
Grace (Fighting VIpers), Darci Stern, (Urban Chaos), and Samantha (Hunter: The Reckoning) are actually great throwbacks to Skate, Lauren Hill, and Michonne (The Walking Dead) but they are both trapped in dead franchises. Besides, Michonne has her own game now.
Lee Everett (TWD) appeared poised to steal the crown of “best (mainstream) black protagonist” from CJ, but he has a false-start due to the pre-game exposition establishing that he is being transported to prison for murder. His story is then automatically a redemptive one in a way that contrasts inversely with Joel from The Last of Us, complete with surrogate fatherhood.
Sheva Alomar was cool until it was revealed that Capcom included all of these costumes.
While on the topic of tribal outfits, I have to admit that the design of the witch doctors in Diablo III is extraordinary, but of course, they are still stereotyped. The female WD in particular struggles in the same way as Elena does in SF3—good luck finding SFW images of her that is not official Blizzard artwork.
What happens with Samir Duran in StarCraft is a spoiler, but with his…metamorphoses, the franchise was left without any POCs, so folks like Chris Metzen give us a ninja space rastafarian. K.
I would give credit for this image, but I cannot read what appears to be Japanese in the source.
Speaking of ninja, someone at Namco must have been fond of Wesley Snipe’s portrayal of Blade (which, IMO, really kicked off the Marvel movie craze, and X-Men was the follow-up), so they just place a doppelganger in Tekken 5 and call him Raven. Meanwhile, Cyrax is a robot, Shinobu is a sidekick and Midway could not decide what ethnicity to assign Jade.
I would like to stop and discuss a few of these characters in more detail because some of them are suffering from identity crises. Vanessa Lewis in Virtua Fighter 4 is one of my all-time favorite character designs. She was the first female video game character that I can think of who did not have a soft belly, but visible washboard abs. Her fighting style is Vale Tudo, like Craig Marduk in Tekken, and I actually believe that she could take him down rather than give her the benefit of doubt as a roughly 130 lb female video game character out-muscling a nearly 300 lb man. However, in Virtua Fighter 5, Vanessa is given the bleach effect, and most gamers believe this was to make her seem more appealing her darker-skinned version. Shameful display, Sega. I bought VF5 for the PS3 and sold sold game because I was that offended.
If anyone has a defense for this, I’d like to hear it, and not in a confrontational way, but just to bring closure to the tragedy.
Jade herself has changed literally with every iteration of MK. In Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3, Jadeis like Mileena, a palette-swapped version of Kitana, but is clearly shaded to be a brown woman. She changes dramatically with every iteration in the franchise after Tanya is introduced in MK4. I suppose Midway felt it necessary to take Jade’s story in a different direction while change her to appearance to avoid the “redundancy” stated earlier with Adam and Axel. Then again Tanya also receieves several makeovers that give her more eurocentric features….
Fan artists cannot even decide which version of Jade is the canonical one, so they just added them all to their collages. Notice that the second from the right is the OG UMK Jade, but the artist lightened her skin…for consistency?
I giggle to myself when thinking about Black Orchid. Like the last two characters, she, too, has undergone major makeovers with every iteration of Killer Instinct. Pardon the recollections of this reformed man, but I distinctly remember being in the schoolyard when boys were talking about how “hot” she was in KI1. Her outrageously thin waist and sharp-angled chest would be adored by young boys of all kinds (personally, meh) two years before the voluptuousLaura Croft would hit the scene.
But when KI2 was announced and artwork began appearing in magazines like GameFan, we discovered that Rare rendered B. Orchid significantly more curvy and racially ambiguous than the her KI1 sprite. This change was drastic enough to point where my black friends took more interest in her while my white friends moved on to Maya. It appears that B Orchid has reverted back to the KI1 vision. And speaking of Maya, she, too, has been modernized, trading her golden flowing locks for dreadlocks.
Of course, I am not going to end this article after disparaging practically every black video game character I have countered. Indeed, there is hope! I tip my hat off to Valve, for they seem to be the best in the business at casting. The worst I can think of concerning their creations is Louis in L4D as a token existence among a war veteran, biker, and video game and moviegeek, but this can be overlooked for him being an IT guy—impressive in the the real world, though not exactly useful during an “infected” outbreak. In L4D2, Valve flips the racial tokenism by adding Coach and Rochelle, the latter of which I am particularly fond. Even though Valve had at first completely changed the L4D(2) crew, it was Rochelle who received the brunt of fanhate. I am not going to speculate as to why Rochelle is so despised, but I will admit that my affection for her is fueled by fan schadenfreude. Years before The Sacrifice campaign, I quenched my thirst with their tears.
Nobody ever fights over wanting to play as Rochelle.
While I am talking about women named ‘Chell, I think it is that kind of character design that gives me the most hope. As I established with Black Orchid, racially/ethnically ambiguous characters are often jarring to hegemonic audiences, because they disrupt preconceived (prejudiced) notions as for what is in their minds fixed (and attractive) characteristics. Before going forward, I want to emphasize that what I propose here as a solution to gaming’s diversity problems is more theoretical than factual. All of the information preceding this paragraph, you can can cash as cultural capital in any African-American Studies course, while what is to follow is still in development. An immediate criticism that I recognize in the “racially/ethnically ambiguous character” approach is that the majority of them are overwhelmingly female, and I lack an explanation for this beyond the potential for exploitative exoticism as I established with Elena—the Lacanian object of desire theory in psychoanalysis of the subconsciousness that would need another thousand-plus words in this article to explore. Anyone who needs evidence to support this idea need to look no further than DLC for female characters (like the Sheva Alomar link above).
Not even Valve is completely immune. Yes, Chelle probably needed an overhaul because her first render was rough on the edges, her softer render certainly appeals to wider audiences. I should note that her real-life model is Afro-Brazilian/Hawaiian
I would like to back up to SoR2 to discuss Max Thunder. Though he is my all-time favorite SoR character, he confuses me to this day.
In this Japanese artwork for SoR2, notice that Max is the only character with slightly slanted eyes, and a “bowl” haircut. We know that Max is a wrestler, so is this a reference to the Japanese wrestling circuit? (My wife also wants everyone to know that Axel looks like a young Jean Claude Van Damme)
In the US artwork, not only is Max now bald (why?) but his slanting of his eyes has been eliminated. Curiously enough, his skin shade remains consistent with the Japanese artwork. What is most appealing to me about Max as a character is thatdefies categorization. Anyone can select him and not care about a typification because of his dynamic ambiguity. I am completely fine with this approach. His character has been memorialized in SoR2 and the ultra-rare and Sega-banned Streets of Rage Remake.
Tyrael in Diablo III caught a lot of people off guard, and given the fact that his voice actor in Diablo II is Ed Trotta, one might say that Blizzard performed the same trick that Marvel has with Nick Fury’s identity. Yes, Tyrael is an angel, and in the Diablo universe lacks a face, but Blizzard’s conscious decision to make Diablo III’s arguably most important NPC a brotha should be heralded. The reason why he makes the cut in this article, however, is because he is a playable character in Heroes of the Storm. The possibility of characters like Tyrael, Snake (Smash Bros Brawl) and Bayonetta (Smash Bros Wii U) to crossover into other IPs in gaming underscores the value of diversity in ways that pays forward.
I pray that God blessed someone on Blizzard’s art team with a vision of what his angels look like, because this is awesome.
At first, Ubisoft snuck Assassin’s Creed III: Liberation onto the PS Vita where only the most diehard of AssCreed fans would would give chase. When I read that it would star an Afro-French female I thought I would be all over it, but did not own a Vita and had to wait until it was ported to PC. Equally notworthy is Ubisoft’s DLC to AssCreed IV: Black Flag, Freedom Cry, starring Adéwalé, also ported to PC. Yes, they are games that began as stand-alone on a dead platform or served as mere addendums to the real flagship games, but progress requires a developer to take risks for change to happen, and I will take my change incrementally over not at all. Ubisoft is not alone, either. RTS is my favorite genre, and in the past year, Microsoft Studios has published the first expansion to AoE in sixteen years with The African Kingdoms. My interest in history quite frankly began with the descriptions of the Celts and Franks and Teutons and Britons in AoE2. All the more enriched all gamers will now be with the addition of Sub-Saharan Africa!
In just the past gaming generation alone, the number of playable POC characters has exploded, and I am pleased to know that my kids will grow up with much more dynamic and less problematic playable characters. If they ever take up writing like their old man, then perhaps their video game version of Blerdvision will have a lot more Clementines (TWD) and Nilins (Remember Me).
Capcom bringing the heat with that brilliant juke. The art team knew *exactly* what they were doing by subduing the colors in the promotional artwork for Remember Me. They did not have to make Nilin brown, but they did.
Since picking up an NES controller in 1985 at the age of 2, Maurice and video games have been inseparable. While most children aspired to be lawyers, doctors, or engineers (at the behest of their parents), he aspired to write for publications such as EGM, PC Gamer, PC Accelerator, and Edge. After achieving ABD status in English at MSU, Maurice left academia and dedicated his writing to his lifelong passion. He is currently the Video Game Editor at Geeks Under Grace.
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